Stage IA: Usually requires surgery with a partial nephrectomy (generally through robotic or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy) being performed.  Active surveillance with serial imaging is performed in select patients, and radiofrequency ablation is performed for nonsurgical candidates who require treatment.

Stage IB: Partial or radical nephrectomy is generally performed, but whenever possible partial is performed.  

Stage II: Most patients undergo radical nephrectomy, though in select patients partial nephrectomy is performed. 

Stage III: Radical nephrectomy is performed.  In certain patients with renal cell carcinoma with blood clots in the vena cava—a large vein carrying deoxygenated blood into the heart—removal of the tumor and thrombus are performed.

Stage IV, or for recurrence: Patients are treated with immunotherapy and/or chemotherapy, or a combination of surgery and immunotherapy