The pleural space is the small area containing fluid between the two layers of thin covering that protects the lungs. A common type of pleural disease is a pleural effusion, when there is an abnormal amount of fluid around the lungs caused by different medical conditions. While most pleural effusions aren’t serious, some require treatment to prevent them from becoming more serious.
Mediastinal tumors are benign or cancerous growths that form in the part of the chest separating the lungs (mediastinum). Mostly comprised of reproductive or germ cells, they develop in the nerves or soft tissue. These rare tumors can be formed from any tissue in the chest cavity.
Primary tumors of the diaphragm are very rare. The most common benign growths in the diaphragm are cysts in the bronchial tubes and the membrane that lines some of the body cavities in the chest (meslothelium). Malignant (cancerous) tumors in the diaphragm include sarcomas and fibrosarcomas.
Chest Wall Tumor
Malignant (cancerous) tumors of the chest wall can start in muscles, bones, cartilage, blood vessels, connective or fatty tissue, nerves, or skin of the chest. Tumors found in the chest wall may be malignant or benign. They are described as being primary tumors, which start in the chest wall, or metastatic tumors, which spread to the chest wall from cancer in other areas of the body. The most common type of primary chest wall tumors are sarcomas that begin in bone or muscle tissue.
Carcinoid tumors grow slowly and usually appear in the gastrointestinal tract or lung. Gastrointestinal symptoms include skin flushing and diarrhea, and symptoms that appear if the tumor is in the lung include difficulty breathing. Carcinoid tumors typically begin in the cells that produce hormones of various organs in the gastrointestinal tract like stomach or intestines, though they can develop in the pancreas or the testicles in men and the ovaries in women.
Thoracic Aortic Disease
Thoracic aortic aneurysm is weakening and/or bulging in the upper part of the aorta, the major blood vessel that branches off from the heart and carries blood to the body. Caused by high blood pressure (hypertension), connective tissue disorders and genetics, the aneurysm can rupture (dissection), causing a life-threatening emergency.
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs when the mitral valve, the heart valve that prevents the backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium of the heart, flops back into the left atrium for various reasons. MVP is fairly common and usually involves no or very little leaking in the heart.
Mitral Valve Disease
Mitral valve disease happens with the mitral valve between the two left chambers of the heart (the ventricle and atrium) do not work properly. Either regurgitation (blood flows backward) or stenosis (blood is not pumped properly out of the heart) occurs.
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a chronic condition where pressure in the arteries that carry blood is elevated. Sustained high blood pressure can cause damage to the body over time and be a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease and more. The condition is diagnosed when measured blood pressure is consistently higher than the norm; lifestyle changes, diet and in serious cases, medication are helpful in controlling it.
Cholesterol is a fatty substance that occurs naturally in the body. A person's diet and genetics can also affect the amount of cholesterol in the body and when there is too much, it is called hypercholesterolemia.